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Death of Gustav Adolf by Arminius1871 Death of Gustav Adolf by Arminius1871
The death of Gustav Adolf the swedish king who defended the protestants in North-Germany against the catholic troups led by Wallenstein.
It took place during the 30-years-war the weirdest war that took place on german ground till that time. 1/3 of all people died in that days in the german states. Some say it was even worse than the 2. world war, because whole regions didnīt have any residents after it.
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RD-DD1843 Featured By Owner Aug 21, 2012
I think the reason it is not studied as much as it should be is that the dynastic and nationalistic elements of the Thirty Years War are quite complicated. Britain got dragged in because the youngest daughter of King James I of England and VI of Scotland married the Elector Palantate who became (after the defrenestration) the Winter King of Bohemia. James (to his credit) limited his involvement, unlike other monarchs. The descendants of James daughter and the Winter King included Princes Rupert and Maurice who aided King Charles I in the English Civil Wars, and later the Hanovarians, from whom the current royal family descends. Some figures got into personal matters and advancement Wallenstein appears to have aspired to his own crown and thrown, which may have led to his assassination in 1634. You can see this gets messy.
Arminius1871 Featured By Owner Aug 21, 2012
Thatīs true, some also say it was the first war, that was not only religious, but also political, because Wallenstein also fought for money and land.

Do you think it wouldīve been better, when Gustav Adolf wins?
RD-DD1843 Featured By Owner Aug 22, 2012
Well, from Sweden's point of view it is "good", as Gustav Adolf's involvement began the so-called Swedish Century when it became the center of power in both Scandanavia and Poland, East Germany, and Russia (to an extent). It would last until Charles XII destroyed it in the 1700s. As for the rest: without King Gustav Wallenstein would have been in a better position for his demands. One has to wonder if the "Soldier under Saturn" (as Bolo Mann called him in a biography) would have been a stable enough figure as a ruler. Also Gustav was financially backed by France and Richelieu. Always one step ahead of everyone else, Richelieu probably knew that it would prolong the war, further weakening the Hapsburgs (a long time goal: Richelieu would finish off the Spanish section of the house at Rocroi in 1643 thus making sure France would be secure on that flank). Ironically, however, after Richelieu and Louis XIII both die in 1642-43, the minority of King Louis XIV (despite the able work of Cardinal Mazarin) enables a religious war to break out in France - the War of the Fronde. Let's face it - this mess just kept spreading and infecting everyone. Even in Poland, the Ukrainians under the Hetman, Bogdan Chmielnitzki would soon be revolting (in 1648). I am amazed it officially ended for an exhausted Germany that year.

The only film I know about the war in English is THE LAST VALLEY (I think that is the title) made in the 1970s and starring Michael Caine. I suppose the German, Swedish, and Austrian cinemas have more movies (did they ever do one about the sack of Magdeburg? was the play by Schiller about Wallenstein - actually plays - ever filmed?). The Nazi cinema played up events that they felt proved their point of view, such as JUD SUSS about the fall of the Court Jew at the Wurtemburg Royal Court in 1742, or KOLBERG about a battle that helped defeat Napoleon in 1809. But would Goebbels and Hitler have tolerated a film about Germans killing each other over their faiths? Well, did Stalin tolerate that third part of IVAN THE TERRIBLE by Eisenstein, that suggested the insanity and paranoia of the powerful 16th Century Tsar (gee, I wonder who Serge Eisentstein secretly had in mind?). Stalin stopped the third part (some portions survive). My guess is Joe and Adolf would have stopped any similar Thirty Years War epic.
Arminius1871 Featured By Owner Aug 23, 2012
The only film I know is a 40 mins documentary about Wallenstein and the 30 years war, itīs from ZDF and the series Die Deutschen, (The Germans).

It shows the horrors of that war, the black death, soldiers wiping out complete villages and mustīve been really worse than ww 2. at that time.

I think if Sweden wouldīve conquered and united the german states, it wouldīve been rather cool, forming a mighty Empire and maybe getting even colonies then.
RD-DD1843 Featured By Owner Aug 23, 2012
Hahaha...Sweden did have a colony - and only Sweden recalls it.

Her two main sea power rivals were Holland and Denmark (no Belgium back then - it will be part of Holland until 1830). The Dutch got a headstart on a world wide empire, especially in South Africa, Indonesia (Dutch East Indies until the 1940s), and the Caribbean. AND - NEW (or as they had it NIEW) AMSTERDAM!, where I am currently residing under it's anglicized name. The Danes were late comers to this game (unless you go back to Eric the Red and Leif Ericsson, with Iceland and Greenland, which were still theirs). They grabbed (why no one else did I can't tell), the Danish West Indies. It was theirs until 1917 when President Wilson and Congress hastily bought it to prevent the Germans from seizing it for a submarine base. It is now the American Virgin Islands.

Sweden, seeing these developements in the New World, was a real late comer, and seized a section of the Eastern Seaboard near modern Delaware and Pennsylvania and New Jersey, calling it New Sweden (catchy name - why not New Stockholm?). The capital was Christiana. It lasted from 1646 or so until 1656.

The Dutch in New/Niew Amsterdam, were usually preoccupied by the Indians (we had a messy local war in the 1640s with them due to an inept governor named Wilhelm Kieft), or the British in New England (keep in mind that the entire colony was what is now Long Island, New York City, and all the land between New York and Albany, because we wanted trading posts with the Indians (when we made peace with them) to buy fur pelts - a big commodity at the time: the British in New England were settling in on portions of Long Island, and some of their less than happy settlers settling in New/Niew Amsterdam - Mistress Anne Hutchinson and her family fled the Puritans who were against her preaching, settled in the Bronx and got massacred in previously mentioned Indian War; the Hutchinson River Parkway commemorates her and her family).

When feisty, peg legged old Peter / Pieter Stuyvesant became the dictatorial Governor of New / Niew Amsterdam, he put a stop to British incursions, and then turned his attention on the Swedish colony. He marched south and in 1656 defeated the Swedes (who were unprepared to defend themselves), and the Swedish colony became part of the Dutch Colony. Alas for poor Pieter, despite his beligerance and patriotism, the Dutch counsel surrendered New / Niew Amsterdam to the British fleet sent by the Duke of York in 1664. Hence the colony became New York (and the territory called Brooklyn became Kings County (in honor of York's older, wiser brother Charles II), it's northern region became Queens (where I am typing this) in honor of Queen Catherine (of Braganza), and Staten Island became Richmond. Only Manhattan and the Bronx (named for Danish settler Jonas Bronk) retained their names. Albany got it's British name at that time, but some trading centers retained Dutch names, like Poughkeepsie.

Sweden never forgot it's little colony that only lasted about a decade, and since so many Swedes immigrated to the U. S. in the 20th Century they certainly recall it as their first foothold in the U. S. Afterwards it never really joined the rush for colonies that the other major European states (even Russia - remember Alaska) made. Maybe it was just as well - Sweden, even after surviving Charles XII did pretty well as a commercial power, and avoided both World Wars (atta girl Sweden!). The Dutch did well on the whole, maintaining power status until Napoleon. They even briefly regained control of New York in 1673-4, but renamed the colonly New / Niew Orange. Since Britain and Holland agreed to a status quo settlement of that war, New / Niew Orange ended up becoming New York again.

However the Dutch influence remained in America like the Swedes: Our second major international fiction writer (the first is a gothic novelist that Shelley liked, Charles Brockden Brown) was Washington Irving, and his first best seller was his comical history of New / Niew Amsterdam, NICKABOCKER'S HISTORY OF NEW YORK (1809). Three of our Presidents were of Dutch descent: Martin Van Buren (born in 1782, he learned English as a second language in upstate New York, as his father spoke Dutch), Theodore Roosevelt, and Franklin Roosevelt. And New York City retained it's position to this day as the pre-eminent trading and business center of the country, as the Dutch would have wanted.
Rheinhard Featured By Owner Jul 10, 2011
I wish more Americans were aware of the 30 Years War. It almost certainly was on the minds of our Founding Fathers like Jefferson and Franklin in guaranteeing freedom of religion in our Constitution. And it's a lot more recent (and much more destructive) than events like the Crusades and the Spanish Inquisition, which are often cited as the other reasons for church-state separation as examples of atrocities caused by Christian religious extremism.
Arminius1871 Featured By Owner Jul 10, 2011
Yes indeed! The 30-years war is said to be the real first world war, because all european powers took part in it and at the end there was made a european peace-treaty and for luck there was never again such a weird war because of religion in Europe.
PrinceWarrenWolfson Featured By Owner Jul 10, 2011  Hobbyist General Artist
I couldn't agree more! I just finished taking my Global 9 honors class and I was really sad about how little we went over the 30 years war. I believe it was a week and that was only because our teacher worked it in more since he knew how important it was.
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